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Notes on JavaScript
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Notes on JavaScript
JavaScript
Originally created to be a browser only language, JS is currently the most used, highly optimised browser language with uses in other environments as well.
There are many languages that get “transpiled” to JavaScript and provide certain features. It is recommended to take a look at them, at least briefly, after mastering JavaScript.
Table of Contents
Introduction
What can the in-browser JS do?
Add new HTML (modify content and styling)
React to actions
Send requests over the network to download and upload files
Get and Set cookies
Client-side local data storage
Fundamentals
To make the code run in the modern way, use "use strict";, at the beginnning.
Modern JavaScript supports “classes” and “modules” – advanced language structures (we’ll surely get to them), that enable use strict automatically. So we don’t need to add the "use strict" directive, if we use them.
Basics
/* -- let --*/ let user = 'John', age = 25, message = 'Hello'; /* -- const --*/ const COLOR_RED = "#F00"; const COLOR_GREEN = "#0F0"; const COLOR_BLUE = "#00F"; const COLOR_ORANGE = "#FF7F00"; // ...when we need to pick a color let color = COLOR_ORANGE; alert(color); // #FF7F00
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alert(Infinity); // Infinity // null let age = null; age = 100; // change the value to undefined age = undefined; alert(age); // "undefined" // the "n" at the end means it's a BigInt const bigInt = 1234567890123456789012345678901234567890n;
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Double and single quotes are “simple” quotes. There’s practically no difference between them in JavaScript. Backticks are “extended functionality” quotes. They allow us to embed variables and expressions into a string by wrapping them in ${…}, for example:
let name = "John"; // embed alert(`Hello, ${name}!`); // Hello, John! alert(`the result is ${1 + 2}`); // the result is 3
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Interactions
alert(message);
prompt(message, default);
confirm(boolean_question);
Type Conversions
String: String()
Numeric: Number()
Boolean: Boolean()
Things similar to C++
Logical Operators
Conditionals (if statements)
Loops: while, for, and do while
Jump statements: break and continue
Switch-case staements
Nullish coalescing operator ??
The operation a ?? b results in a if a is defined and b is a is not defined.
The operator ?? has a very low precedence, only a bit higher than ? and =, so consider adding parentheses when using it in an expression.
It’s forbidden to use it with || or && without explicit parentheses.
Label based breaking
outer: for (let i = 0; i < 3; i++) { for (let j = 0; j < 3; j++) { let input = prompt(`Value at coords (${i},${j})`, ''); // if an empty string or canceled, // then break out of both loops if (!input) break outer; // (*) // do something with the value... } } alert('Done!');
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We can also move the label to a different line:
outer: for (let i = 0; i < 3; i++) { ... }
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However, this doesn't allow you the freedom to jump anywhere from anywhere unlike goto command in C.
Functions
A function declaration looks like this:
function name(parameters, delimited, by, comma) { /* code */ return 100; // optional ofcourse }
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Values passed to a function as parameters are copied to its local variables.
A function may access outer variables. But it works only from inside out. The code outside of the function doesn’t see its local variables.
A function can return a value. If it doesn’t, then its result is undefined.
// Function Declaration function sum(a, b) { return a + b; }
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// Function Expression let sum = function(a, b) { return a + b; };
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Callback functions
function ask(question, yes, no) { if (confirm(question)) yes() else no(); } function showOk() { alert( "You agreed." ); } function showCancel() { alert( "You canceled the execution." ); } // usage: functions showOk, showCancel are passed // as arguments to ask ask("Do you agree?", showOk, showCancel);
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If the function is declared as a separate statement in the main code flow, that’s called a “Function Declaration”.
If the function is created as a part of an expression, it’s called a “Function Expression”.
Function Declarations are processed before the code block is executed. They are visible everywhere in the block.
Function Expressions are created when the execution flow reaches them.
Functions are values. They can be assigned, copied or declared in any place of the code.
Arrow functions
The jorney from functions to arrow functions:
1. var anon = function add(a, b) { return a + b }; 2. var anon = (a, b) => a + b; 3. var anon = (a, b) => { return a + b }; 4. var anon = a => a; // if we have only one parameter 5. var () => {} // noop // this looks pretty nice when you change something like: [1,2,3,4].filter(function (value) {return value % 2 === 0}); // to: [1,2,3,4].filter(value => value % 2 === 0);
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JavaScript Specials
let userName = prompt("Your name?", 2); alert( "Visitor: " + userName );
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// expression at the right side 1. let sum = (a, b) => a + b; // or multi-line syntax with { ... }, need return here: 2. let sum = (a, b) => { // ... return a + b; } // without arguments 3. let sayHi = () => alert("Hello"); // with a single argument 4. let double = n => n * 2;
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Parameters can have default values: function sum(a = 1, b = 2) {...}.
Functions always return something. If there’s no return statement, then the result is undefined.
Objects
Objects are associative arrays with several special features.
They store properties (key-value pairs), where:
Property keys must be strings or symbols (usually strings).
Values can be of any type.
To access a property, we can use:
The dot notation: obj.property.
Square brackets notation obj["property"]. Square brackets allow to take the key from a variable, like obj[varWithKey].
Additional operators:
To delete a property: delete obj.prop.
To check if a property with the given key exists: "key" in obj.
To iterate over an object: for (let key in obj) loop.
What we’ve studied in this chapter is called a “plain object”, or just Object.
There are many other kinds of objects in JavaScript:
Array to store ordered data collections,
Date to store the information about the date and time,
Error to store the information about an error.
…and so on.
Copying an Object
Well, objects are copied as reference.
Object.assign () servers to produce a clone of one or several objects combined.
Object methods
// Method 1 let user = { name: "John", age: 30 }; user.sayHi = function() { alert("Hello!"); }; // Method 2 let user = { name: "John", age: 30 }; function sayHi() { alert("Hello!"); }; user.sayHi = sayHi; // Method 3 user = { sayHi: function() { alert("Hello"); } }; // Method 4 user = { sayHi() { alert("Hello"); } };
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Keyword: this
Methods can reference the object as this.
Arrow functions don't have this and when this is accessed in an arrow function, it is taken from outside.
When a function is declared, it may use this, but that this has no value until the function is called.
Constructor and new
function User(name) { this.name = name; this.sayHi = function() { alert( "My name is: " + this.name ); }; } let john = new User("John");
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Optional Chaining using ?.
The optional chaining ?. syntax has three forms:
1.
obj?.prop – returns obj.prop if obj exists, otherwise undefined.
2.
obj?.[prop] – returns obj[prop] if obj exists, otherwise undefined.
3.
obj.method?.() – calls obj.method() if obj.method exists, otherwise returns undefined.
Conversions
obj.toString() can be used to convert an object to a string.